IJPPP Copyright © 2009-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2011;3(3):236-242.

Original Article
Effect of local controlled heat on transdermal delivery of nicotine

Kristian Kjær Petersen, Mark Lillelund Rousing, Carina Jensen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Parisa Gazerani*

Center for Sensory-Motor Interactions (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University,

Received September 2, 2011; accepted September 7, 2011; Epub September 8, 2010; Published September 30, 2011

Abstract: Skin permeability and local blood perfusion are important factors for transdermal drug delivery. Application of heat is
expected to enhance microcirculation and local perfusion and/or blood vessel permeability, thus facilitating drug transfer to the
systemic circulation. In addition, heating prior to or during topical application of a drug may facilitate skin penetration, increase kinetic
energy, and facilitate drug absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether application of controlled local heat would
enhance transdermal delivery from the nicotine patch mounted on the upper arm of ten healthy non-smoking male Caucasian subjects.
Local skin perfusion was monitored using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) at baseline (32°C) and following application of local controlled
heat (43°C) on the upper arm, where the patch was placed. The residue of the nicotine patches was then examined by
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to indicate the uptake of nicotine from the patch due to the local controlled heat.
Controlled heat application (43°C) caused significant cutaneous hyperaemia (up to 9-10 folds increase in skin perfusion) with an
increase in nicotine uptake (up to 13 folds). The method was well tolerated without causing any pain or discomfort. These data suggest
that controlled heat application, which is a simple, non-invasive method, can significantly enhance local skin perfusion and drug uptake
from patches. (IJPPP119001).

Keywords: Transdermal, nicotine, patch, local heat, skin perfusion

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Address all correspondence to:
Parisa Gazerani, Pharm D, PhD
Center for Sensory-Motor Interactions (SMI),
Department of Health Science and Technology
Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University
Fredrik Bajers Vej 7D3, 9220, Aalborg, Denmark
Phone: +45 9940 2412
Fax: +45 9815 4008
Email: gazerani@hst.aau.dk