IJPPP Copyright © 2009-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2012;4(1):1-9.

Original Article
NAD+ administration significantly attenuates synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced
DNA damage and structural alterations of rodent testes

Caibin Sheng, Heyu Chen, Ban Wang, Tengyuan Liu, Yunyi Hong, Jiaxiang Shao, Xin He, Yingxin Ma, Hui Nie, Na Liu, Weiliang Xia,
Weihai Ying

School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, P.R. China.
*These two authors contributed equally to this work.

Received January 26, 2012; accepted February 21, 2012; Epub March 1, 2012; Published March 15, 2012

Abstract: Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has great potential for its applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. In order to
apply SR X-ray in clinical settings, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the damaging effects of SR X-ray on normal
tissues, and to search for the strategies to reduce the detrimental effects of SR X-ray on normal tissues. However, so far there has
been little information on these topics. In this study we used the testes of rats as a model to characterize SR X-ray-induced tissue
damage, and to test our hypothesis that NAD+ administration can prevent SR X-ray-induced injury of the testes. We first determined the
effects of SR X-ray at the doses of 0, 0.5, 1.3, 4 and 40 Gy on the biochemical and structural properties of the testes one day after SR
X-ray exposures. We found that 40 Gy of SR X-ray induced a massive increase in double-strand DNA damage, as assessed by both
immunostaining and Western blot of phosphorylated H2AX levels, which was significantly decreased by intraperitoneally (i.p.)
administered NAD+ at doses of 125 and 625 mg/kg. Forty Gy of SR X-ray can also induce marked increases in abnormal cell nuclei as
well as significant decreases in the cell layers of the seminiferous tubules one day after SR X-ray exposures, which were also
ameliorated by the NAD+ administration. In summary, our study has shown that SR X-ray can produce both molecular and structural
alterations of the testes, which can be significantly attenuated by NAD+ administration. These results have provided not only the first
evidence that SR X-ray-induced tissue damage can be ameliorated by certain approaches, but also a valuable basis for elucidating the
mechanisms underlying SR X-ray-induced tissue injury. (IJPPP1201005).

Keywords: Synchrotron radiation, X-ray, NAD+, testes, tissue injury

Address all correspondence to:
Dr. Weihai Ying
School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road
Shanghai, 200030, P.R. China.
Tel: 011-86-21-6293-3075; Fax: 011-86-21-6293-2302
E-mail: weihaiy@sjtu.edu.cn.

Dr. Weiliang Xia
School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai, 200030, P.R. China.
Tel: 011-86-21-6293-3291; Fax: 011-86-21-6293-2302
E-mail: wlxia@sjtu.edu.cn