IJPPP Copyright © 2009-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2009;1(1):41-47.

Original Article
Prevalence of reduced renal function among diabetic hypertensive patients

Waleed M. Sweileh, Ansam F. Sawalha, Sa’ed H. Zyoud, Samah W. Al-Jabil, Nasr Y. Shraim

College of Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy Graduate Program, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine; Poison Control and Drug
Information Center (PCDIC), An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.

Received  October 12, 2008, accepted November 4, 2008 and available online November 15, 2008

Abstract:  Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension are at high risk of vascular complications, particularly, renal deterioration.
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of reduced renal function corresponding to chronic kidney disease
(CKD) stages 3 – 5 among diabetic hypertensive patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of diabetic hypertensive patients
attending A-Watani governmental medical center from August 2006 until August 2007. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was estimated
using the Cockcroft–Gault equation. Those with CrCl< 60 ml/ min, corresponding to CDK stages 3 – 5, were considered to have
reduced renal function. The prevalence of reduced renal function was calculated, and the risk factors associated with it were evaluated
using multiple logistic regression. The following were the results found in this study: (a) the prevalence of reduced renal function
among the study patients was 35.5% distributed as follows: (63.5%) had stage 3 CKD, 21.7% had stage 4 and 13% had stage 5 CKD.
(b) Patients with reduced renal function were elder, had higher number of chronic diseases and had longer duration of diabetes and
hypertension than those with CrCl≥ 60ml/ min. (c) Men had a higher prevalence of reduced renal function than women. (d) Significant
predictors of reduced renal function were older age, duration of diabetes and number of chronic diseases based on logistic regression
analysis. Early and continuous screening of renal function among diabetic hypertensive patients is required to implement preventable
strategies of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Better control of blood pressure and diabetes mellitus are important. (IJPPP811001).

Key words: Prevalence, reduced renal function, diabetic hypertension, diabetes mellitus

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Address all correspondence to:
Waleed M. Sweileh, PhD
Associate Professor, College of Pharmacy
An-Najah National University
Nablus, Palestine.
Tel. 00-972-599-225906,
Fax. 00-972-2940475
E-mail.
waleedsweileh@najah.edu, waleedsweileh@yahoo.com